Etowaucum
Etowaucum (baptized Nicholas). Named Etow Oh Koam, King of the River Nation
By John Verelst (circa 1648–1734)
Credit: Library and Archives Canada, Acc. No. 1977-35-1
Acquired with a special grant from the Canadian Government in 1977

Onigoheriago
Onigoheriago (baptized John). Named Ho Nee Yeath Taw No Row, King of the Generethgarich
1710 By John Verelst (circa 1648–1734)
Credit: Library and Archives Canada, Acc. No. 1977-35-3
Acquired with a special grant from the Canadian Government in 1977.

Sagayenkwaraton
Sagayenkwaraton (baptized Brant). Named Sa Ga Yeath Qua Pieth Tow, King of the Maquas (Mohawk) 1710
John Verelst (circa 1648-1734)
Credit: Library and Archives Canada, Acc. No. 1977-35-2
Acquired with a special grant from the Canadian government in 1977

Tejonihokarawa
Tejonihokarawa (baptized Hendrick). Named Tee Yee Neen Ho Ga Row, Emperor of the Six Nations, 1710
By John Verelst (circa 1648–1734)
Credit: Library and Archives Canada, acc. no. 1977-35-4.
Acquired with a special grant from the Canadian Government in 1977.

In 1710, delegates of the Iroquoian Confederacy, three Mohawks and a Mahican, traveled to Britain to meet Queen Anne in order to cement a military and political alliance. The delegation was followed with great interest in the British press and in the following decades many other instances of British-Indigenous diplomacy would result in trans-Atlantic visits. Queen Anne purportedly was so impressed by these four leaders that she commissioned their portraits by John Verelst, the court artist, and they survive today as some of the earliest oil portraits of First Nations. Although identified by the British as “kings” or “emperor,” these titles do not reflect the complexity of leadership roles amongst Indigenous nations and, thus, are merely one example of the ways in which European attitudes and perceptions imbue these portraits.