Chapter 5 Images

Dr Egerton Ryerson. This portrait exemplifies the stern and pious Ryerson, a Methodist minister by training before he became Ontario’s first superintendent (now referred to as minister) of education in 1844. Courtesy of Don Morrow (p. 211)

Toronto Normal School Play Sheds, c. 1855. These structures resembled railway platforms but at least they provided and modelled the importance of some kind of sheltered play-area for students. Courtesy of Don Morrow (p. 213)

Left: Female Indian club exercise, from Physical Culture, 1888 edition. Right: Indian clubs made by Spalding. Indian clubs were very popular as implements used for physical exercise during the nineteenth century; the “Indian” ascription likely stems from the much larger and heavier clubs used for strength training in one style of wrestling common in India. Courtesy of Don Morrow (p. 219)

Male rope exercises, Physical Culture, 1888 edition. The homuncular or adult-like caricature of the boy is apparent as is the emphasis on form (straight legs and toes) while climbing the rope apparatus. Many high school gymnasiums contained climbing ropes until well into the twentieth century. Courtesy of Don Morrow (p. 220)

Sir Donald Smith, Lord Strathcona, 1908. Smith had an extended political career and was a major figure in the Hudson’s Bay Company as well as in the creation of the Canadian Pacific Railway. He was accorded the honour of driving the “last spike” to complete Canada’s transcontinental railway line in 1885. Library and Archives Canada/Credit: William Notman & Son/Canadian Intellectual Property Office fonds/C-0017767 (p. 225)

Annual Sport Day at the Battleford, Saskatchewan, Native Industrial School, 1895. Architectural view of Native school with students posed in front of building. They are dressed in school uniforms, boys and girls; one boy is seen holding a cricket paddle. Library and Archives Canada, PA-182266 (p. 226)

BC Pro-Rec movement: Gymnastic display by girls’ instructors in BC, c. 1932. The postural, group-gymnastic, and dance-like (note the foot-wear) advocated movements are apparent even in the posed picture. Image I-00461 courtesy of Royal BC Museum, BC Archives (p. 228)

Fitness, Sports Day at Lansdowne Park, Ottawa, c. 1943. The paramilitaristic, squad-like image of the young women is evident and fitting of the Second World War era. Library and Archives Canada Item no. ZK-942.3; Archival reference no. R112-1944-8-E (p. 230)

Early advertisement from the ParticipACTION Canadian fitness campaign, c. 1974. This advertisement and hundreds like it were designed to motivate Canadians to become more involved in physical fitness in some capacity. ParticipACTION, used with permission, http://www.usask.ca/archives/participaction/english/motivate/early_poster1.html, (p. 231)(p. 117)

Young recreational squash player, a product of the late twentieth-century fitness boom. The less cumbersome squash outfit and more sport- than fitness-oriented promotion of exercise is evident in the photograph. Courtesy of Don Morrow (p. 232)

1949 Victoria School Girls’ Basketball Team. The girls look far happier than a lot of the earlier portrayals of female athletes; certainly the athletic clothing was much less restrictive by mid-twentieth century. Note the outdoor basketball “net” or metal hoop and wooden backboard. Playing outdoors was likely a more affordable alternative for school boards that lacked sufficient funding to build gymnasiums. Image I-0220 courtesy of Royal BC Museum, BC Archives (p. 233)