Higher Education

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Writing by Choice, Second Edition: Chapter Two

Instructions:

Question 1:


a) How much they already know about the topic.
b) Whether the professor will look favourably on the topic.
c) Whether the assignment is to be submitted to plagiarism-checking software.
d) All of the factors that will determine the type of writing to be completed.

Question 2:


a) whether secondary sources are available on the topic
b) the required length of the assignment
c) the documentation style
d) their audience and purpose

Question 3:


a) inform
b) argue
c) describe
d) summarize
e) Any of the above.

Question 4:


a) further enlarged and expanded to make it more general
b) further narrowed to make it more specific
c) rejected in favour of the writer’s personal choice

Question 5:


a) to meet learning objectives
b) to integrate secondary sources
c) to apply concepts previously taught
d) Any of the above.

Question 6:


a) to be effective, writing must be tailored to its specific audience
b) the most skilled writers write only for themselves
c) the audience for a piece of writing has very little bearing on the nature of the text
d) because all good writing is basically the same, the question of audience is irrelevant

Question 7:


a) has been through a usability testing process
b) emphasizes the role of the author, a text’s first reader
c) focuses on the readers’ characteristics in order to best communicate its ideas
d) None of the above.

Question 8:


a) The writer has adopted strategies geared towards a particular audience.
b) The writer has simplified all content so anyone can understand it.
c) The writer has tried to challenge a typical reader in order to get her to think critically about the material.
d) The writer has expressed her opinions strongly and unambiguously on the subject being discussed.

Question 9:


a) It could help determine the kinds of information to include in the body of the essay.
b) It could help determine the language level of the text.
c) It could help determine what writing strategies to use to write the essay.
d) It could help determine any of the above.

Question 10:


a) that the writing reflects the needs of the author
b) that the writing is free of errors and that it communicates its ideas clearly
c) that the writing is simple enough for any audience
d) All of the above.

Question 11:


a) the placement of topic sentences
b) the style of scholarly documentation
c) the grammatical correctness of the writing
d) the formality of the language and the tone of the writer’s voice

Question 12:


a) a general audience, with no particular defining characteristics.
b) an implicit audience, a particularized group with some knowledge and interest.
c) an explicit audience, with specific knowledge of your topic.

Question 13:


a) a general audience, with no particular defining characteristics
b) an implicit audience, a particularized group with some knowledge and interest
c) an explicit audience, with specific knowledge of your topic

Question 14:


a) telling readers what they want to hear
b) creating a powerful example of "writer-based" prose
c) making readers more open to “hear” them and to understand their ideas

Question 15:


a) good writers always try to please their readers
b) all types of audience will lack interest in your topic
c) if the writer misjudges the reader’s interest, the text may fail to engage the reader

Question 16:


a) include background information, examples, and important facts
b) ignore those readers and address the more knowledgeable readers
c) use the particular jargon of specialists

Question 17:


a) use the simplest words possible
b) add summaries regularly throughout the text
c) use examples, anecdotes, or short narratives to help readers to relate to the topic
d) employ impressive scholarly diction to force the reader deeper into the text

Question 18:


a) to be as original and creative as possible in order to surprise the instructor
b) to reproduce the instructor’s ideas as closely as possible
c) to follow the assignment instructions carefully and meet the instructor’s expectations
d) to use the second-person voice and address the instructor as “you”

Question 19:


a) the sexual orientation of your audience
b) the degree to which the audience is likely to agree or disagree with your thesis
c) whether the audience is composed of mostly men or women
d) whether the audience enjoys public rather than private discourse

Question 20:


a) positive orientation
b) neutral orientation
c) mixed orientation
d) negative orientation

Question 21:


a) positive orientation
b) neutral orientation
c) mixed orientation
d) negative orientation

Question 22:


a) tactfully avoid all areas of disagreement in the hopes that your reader will not be reminded of them
b) try to find out as much as possible about your reader and his point of view before formulating an argumentative strategy
c) express your opinion in the most forceful way possible in the hopes of overwhelming your reader
d) pretend to agree with your reader while carefully undermining his point of view wherever possible

Question 23:


a) audience orientation
b) the knowledge level of the reader
c) the rules of writer-based prose
d) All of the above.

Question 24:


a) do not compromise their own confidence in the rightness of their ideas
b) ignore the question of their own biases, as they have little bearing on argumentation
c) express their views in a forthright manner
d) respect the point of view of the readers and consider it objectively

Question 25:


a) is broader and encompasses a wider range of ideas
b) is narrower and more tightly focussed
c) None of the above.

Question 26:


a) not only names the topic, but makes a claim about it as well
b) is broader than the topic
c) does not reflect the viewpoint of the writer
d) All of the above.

Question 27:


a) consider their own interests, hobbies, and extracurricular activities
b) ask what subjects they are curious about
c) consider other people’s interests and the subjects other readers may be interested in knowing more about
d) All of the above.

Question 28:


a) may depend on the kind of essay you will be writing
b) may depend on your own pre-writing preferences
c) may depend on both the above factors
d) will always depend on the topic itself

Question 29:


a) edit the essay for grammar and punctuation
b) create unified and coherent paragraphs
c) to sort one’s thoughts, to find helpful ideas, and to create a preliminary thesis
d) None of the above.

Question 30:


a) who is the audience for this text
b) how long does the piece of writing have to be
c) the six traditional “journalistic” questions _______. who, what, why, where, when, and how
d) what secondary sources are available

Question 31:


a) begin writing the introduction
b) construct a formal outline
c) attempt to formulate a thesis statement
d) connect the ideas together to form larger units

Question 32:


a) write quickly but always keep your topic in focus
b) write quickly but without self-censure
c) write quickly but paying particular attention to word choice and clear expression
d) All of the above.

Question 33:


a) chooses a keyword or significant phrase and uses it to begin new freewriting
b) begins to edit and proofread the freewriting text
c) “loops” together their ideas into a finished draft
d) None of the above.

Question 34:


a) It’s best to avoid pre-writing activities and begin by writing an introduction.
b) Freewriting can help writers find subconscious ideas and overcome writer’s block.
c) Freewriting is only for youngsters who have trouble developing ideas.

Question 35:


a) writes down words associated with the topic to produce groups of related ideas
b) improves a draft by reorganizing paragraphs.
c) edits a draft in order to keep modifying elements closer to the elements they modify
d) None of the above.

Question 36:


a) The writer has adopted strategies that make the text easy to follow.
b) The writer has simplified all content so anyone can understand it.
c) The writer has tried to challenge a typical reader in order to get her to think critically about the material.
d) The writer has expressed her opinions strongly and unambiguously on the subject.

Question 37:


a) secondary sources
b) personal experience
c) interviews
d) All of the above.

Question 38:


a) A graphic outline, like a flow chart.
b) A “scratch” outline representing only the central points.
c) A formal outline that shows main topics and sub-topics.
d) None of the above.

Question 39:


a) when you begin thinking about the order of your points
b) when you have determined your main points but before you have determined your sub-points
c) when you are confident you have included everything you want to say in your essay
d) outlines can be constructed any time as you begin to consider your essay’s structure

Question 40:


a) use it as you would a compass to give you a general direction to go in
b) use it as you would a map that will get you to a known destination by a specific route
c) use it as you would a set of blueprints that shows your essay’s intended design, but be prepared to modify parts of it if necessary

Question 41:


a) professionally written
b) spontaneous and full of energy and verve
c) disorganized and incoherent, that is, lacking an “implied outline,” an apparent structure of main points and sub-points
d) None of the above.

Question 42:


a) the size of the discussions
b) chronology
c) the relative strength of the ideas
d) considerations of space in the essay

Question 43:


a) points are arranged from weakest to strongest
b) all of the points are equally strong and persuasive
c) the discussion culminates with the weakest point
d) None of the above.

Question 44:


a) to refine the thesis even further
b) to work out the relationship between main points and sub-points
c) to get ideas onto the page
d) All of the above.

Question 45:


a) regularly print hard copies of all files
b) use generic file names
c) use the “save as” function, and save their most recent draft as a separate file with an updated title

Question 46:


a) print a paper version of their essay and proofread the hard copy
b) use the spellchecker, which is a part of the word processing software
c) supplement the work of the spellchecker by looking for correctly spelled words used in the wrong context
d) All of the above.

Question 47:


a) a minor stage in which errors of spelling and grammar are corrected
b) a substantial stage in which meaning can be clarified, ideas emphasized, and the structure fully developed
c) an optional stage of the writing process
d) a brief stage in which obvious faults can be caught and corrected

Question 48:


a) It tends to be undervalued by students and other non-professionals.
b) It tends to be undervalued by professional and non-professional writers alike.
c) It tends to be overvalued by students and other non-professionals.
d) It tends to be overvalued by professional and non-professional writers alike

Question 49:


a) Allow enough time to check for typos and other errors.
b) Allow enough time for an objective second party to check for typos and other errors.
c) Allow enough time to check typos and other errors yourself and, ideally, for an objective second party to check for typos and other errors.
d) Allow enough time to re-consider purpose, audience, and structure, ensuring the clarity of meaning, correctness of grammar, and placement of emphasis; then, check for typos and other errors.