Cognition, Fourth Edition - Practice Quiz (Chapters 8–14)

Instructions: For each question, click on the radio button beside your answer. When you have completed the entire quiz, click the Submit my answers button at the bottom of the page to receive your results.

Question 1:


a) Conservative focusing; selection tasks
b) Successive scanning; selection tasks
c) Reception task; conservative focusing
d) Wholism; reception tasks
e) Focus gambling; simultaneous scanning

Question 2:


a) misaligned hierarchies
b) categorical mistrust
c) commitment heuristics
d) vertical thinking
e) implicit hypothesis

Question 3:


a) categories and concepts
b) superordinates and subordinates
c) criterial attributes and correlated features
d) simplicity and complexity

Question 4:


a) emotions; form
b) form; lack of emotion
c) function; sensory features
d) sensory features; function

Question 5:


a) ‘Yes, it would still eat carrots’; essentialist
b) ‘No, it would eat grass and say “moo”’; folk taxonomy
c) ‘Yes, it would still eat carrots’; prototypical
d) ‘It would eat carrots and grass and say “moo”’; integrationism
e) ‘No, it would eat grass and say “moo”’; essentialist

Question 6:


a) attributional features
b) family resemblances
c) distinctive features
d) criterial attributes
e) negative instances

Question 7:


a) NP1 + to be + V
b) NP1 + VP + NP1
c) NP1 + VP2 + NP3
d) Art + N1 + V + N2

Question 8:


a) poverty of the stimulus
b) parameter setting
c) syntactic structures
d) language acquisition

Question 9:


a) discovered in the course of the conversation; shared, or given
b) not supported by evidence; obvious
c) known only by the speaker; known by both parties
d) information that is discussed because of its novelty to both parties; information known to both parties

Question 10:


a) quality, reality, brevity, and reason
b) meaning, brevity, necessity, and relativity
c) rationality, reliability, necessity, and idiosyncrasy
d) quality, quantity, relation, and manner

Question 11:


a) keep one’s thoughts private
b) regulate one’s thought
c) attract other people’s attention to one’s own thoughts
d) practice one’s language skills

Question 12:


a) means–end analysis
b) attentional blindness
c) productive thinking
d) structural blindness

Question 13:


a) increased incrementally for participants doing both insight and non-insight problems, but increased at a slower rate for participants doing insight problems
b) increased incrementally for the non-insight group, and remained steady for the insight group
c) decreased for the insight group, but increased for the non-insight group.
d) None of the above.

Question 14:


a) representational change theory
b) progress monitoring theory
c) functional fixedness theory
d) Zeigarnik theory

Question 15:


a) worse than; insufficient frontal cortex development.
b) better than; five-year-olds having less exposure to new technology.
c) better than; culturally universal abilities independent of exposure to technology.
d) None of the above.

Question 16:


a) representational strategy
b) heuristic
c) algorithm
d) go-moku

Question 17:


a) Computer programs lack insight.
b) Computers are not adequately able to integrate information into a cohesive whole.
c) The programs lack the perceptual sophistication of the brain.
d) All of the above.

Question 18:


a) one of its premises is false
b) both of its premises are false
c) the conclusion does not necessarily follow from the premises
d) All of the above.

Question 19:


a) natural deduction systems
b) iconic mental models
c) inferential principles
d) echoic mental models

Question 20:


a) conformation bias
b) iconicity
c) gambler’s fallacy
d) eliminative strategy

Question 21:


a) Iconicity; inferences
b) Biases; heuristics
c) Predispositions; principles
d) Choices; judgements

Question 22:


a) availability heuristic; choose the item that is most easily recalled to memory
b) availability; commit the confirmation bias error
c) recognition heuristic; choose the previously seen item
d) recognition; commit the ecological validity error
e) Both a and c.

Question 23:


a) 40
b) 20
c) 15
d) 25

Question 24:


a) Increased health
b) Increased quality of education
c) Increased environmental complexity
d) All of the above.

Question 25:


a) fluid; crystallized; fluid
b) crystallized; fluid; crystallized
c) practical; analytical; creative
d) analytical; analytical; creative

Question 26:


a) its own symbol system
b) distinctive developmental history
c) the existence of people who are exceptional in the domain being elucidated
d) All of the above.

Question 27:


a) Anna is 23 and has a cumulative university GPA of 4.0.
b) Krista is 23 and is captain of her basketball team.
c) Erik is 8 and is fluent in 3 languages.
d) Eliza is 8 years old and understands linear algebra.

Question 28:


a) improves creative problem solving
b) heightens distraction from irrelevant stimuli
c) increases flexibility in cognitive tasks
d) All of the above.
e) None of the above.

Question 29:


a) Specific
b) Diversive
c) Collative
d) Pragmatic

Question 30:


a) mere exposure effect
b) collative stimulus variables phenomenon
c) structural mere exposure effect
d) Both a and c.

Question 31:


a) The upbeat shorts; mood relief phenomenon
b) The sad shorts; mood congruence phenomenon
c) The sad shorts; mood-dependant recall phenomenon
d) Both sad and upbeat shorts; mood relief phenomenon
e) The upbeat shorts; mood incongruence phenomenon

Question 32:


a) Internal events happen within a specific context, whereas external events happen outside of this context.
b) Internal events are events we generate ourselves, whereas external events are events we perceive.
c) External events are generally better remembered than internal events.
d) Memory for internal events is less mood dependant than memory for external events.
e) Both b and d.

Question 33:


a) Look directly at the person you are talking to, straight in the eyes
b) Show your left profile as often as you can and avoid showing your right profile
c) Show your right profile as often as you can and avoid showing your left profile
d) Alternate equally between showing your left and your right profile

Question 34:


a) Autobiographical memory is the same across ages, you can simply ask him about these years; the equal memory effect
b) Make him smell an array of different scents; the Proust effect
c) Prime him with concepts such as ‘arts and crafts class’; the bump effect
d) Ask him to imagine the smell of different items; the bump effect d) Ask him to imagine the smell of different items; the bump effect

Question 35:


a) We believe that, ultimately, we are all very similar.
b) We will reject inconsistencies.
c) We will avoid the use of descriptive inconsistencies in order to maintain general coherence in a person’s evaluation.
d) We are unable to associate the idea of someone being both shy and intrepid.
e) We will find ways to justify discordant attributes as situational.

Question 36:


a) A study that examines the influence of working memory on reaction time to a Stroop task
b) A study examining the cognitive factors that influence the speed and ease with which people can assemble furniture from a set of instructions
c) A study looking at the effects of remembering a sequence of numbers while simultaneously mimicking a series of facial gestures
d) A study exploring the role of the hippocampus in a spatial maze task

Question 37:


a) Organizational interface
b) Learner interface
c) User interface
d) Task interface

Question 38:


a) movement; size
b) width; movement
c) size; distance
d) distance; width

Question 39:


a) Information mining
b) Information foraging
c) Following information scents
d) Information diet

Question 40:


a) area of remote learning
b) zone of moderate difficulty
c) region of proximal learning
d) desirable difficulties