Quiz for Chapter 3
Multiple Choice Questions
1. How does the sociological approach to knowledge differ from other approaches?
a) It is not affected by the values of researchers and is uniquely free from bias.
b) Unlike other kinds of knowledge, it is resistant to falsification.
c) It is supported by tangible evidence and follows strict procedures.
d) It is not subject to ethical principles, reinforcing a fact–value distinction.
Answer: C (Page 54)
2. What is an important assumption of a positivist epistemological orientation?
a) The only way to analyze a social problem is through symbolic meanings.investigate universal measures of truth.
b) There is an objective, independent reality.
c) The categories we use to make sense of the world have built-in essences.
d) It often has an emancipatory interest in empowerment.
Answer: B (Page 61)
3. Which premise forms the basis of standpoint epistemology?
a) The standpoint of a powerless group has potential for providing a good analysis.
b) The standpoint should not be affected by the social location of the researcher.
c) The dominant class is attuned to the perspectives of the subordinate class.
d) The standpoint epistemology is based on Weber's interest in value-free analysis.
Answer: A (Page 74)
4. How do sociological theories differ from common-sense theories?
a) They provide guidelines for thinking in a disciplined manner about the kinds of research questions to pose.
b) They are systematic efforts to develop a unified theory that will explain all the observed uniformities of social behaviour.
c) They are part of a quantitative research strategy involving statistical analysis.
d) They are concerned with epistemological questions involving the validity of knowledge.
Answer: A (Page 56)
5. According to Robert K. Merton, what is the most abstract form of theorizing?
a) structural functionalism.
b) working hypotheses.
c) theories of the middle range.
d) grand theories.
Answer: D (Page 56)
True or False Questions
Social solidarity serves to provide individuals with a solid base, increasing their chances of recovery when faced with difficulties.
Answer: True Page 67
2. Masculinity does not have the same meaning across all cultures.
Answer: True (Page 73)
3. Lantz and Booth discovered that breast cancer was caused by women's use of birth control pills.
Answer: False (Page 74)
4. Male hospitalization rates for attempted suicide are far higher than female rates and they are more likely to use lethal methods.
Answer: False (Page 71)
5. A sociological theory is just a guess or a hunch, and while not proven, it does have heuristic value.
Answer: False (Page 55)
Fill in the Blank Questions
1. Constructivism, a position consistent with a qualitative research strategy, is in contrast to the ontological orientation of ________.
Answer: objectivism (Page 59)
2. Any theory both reveals and ________ certain aspects of the human experience.
Answer: conceals (Page 55)
3. For the positivist epistemological orientation, there is a certain ________ to all sciences, including the social sciences.
Answer: unity (Page 61)
4. Durkheim argued that there were ________ at work, independent of the conscious will of the person considering suicide.
Answer: social facts (Page 66)
5. The concept of ________ does not have the same meaning across all cultures.
Answer: masculinity (Page 73)
Short Answer Questions
1. What did Durkheim initially hypothesize about suicide and was he correct?
Answer:Durkheim hypothesized that suicide rates would be highest where rates of psychological disorders were also high. He was incorrect and had to revise his theory to account for what he called social solidarity.
2. What did Frank Trovato find as a consequence of his study 'The Stanley Cup of Hockey and Suicide in Quebec, 1951–1992'? How does he explain his findings?
Answer: Trovato found an increase in the suicide rate among young men in seasons when the Montreal Canadiens were eliminated from the playoffs. His explanation for this increased suicide rate is that socially isolated people are given an opportunity to experience social solidarity during the playoffs, but with the Canadiens' elimination from the playoffs, this solidarity evaporated, leading to greater feelings of loneliness.
3. How does Fish is Fish offer an example of the constructivist perspective?
Answer: Fish is Fish illustrates that reality ca not be perceived directly and is always filtered through our existing experiences.
4. How have feminists critiqued traditional sociology?
Answer: Feminists like Dorothy Smith have argued that traditional sociology objectifies perspective and personal experience because it lacks concern for the people being researched or the people behind research.