Cultural Constructions of Gender
1. What is the central contribution of gender studies to the concept of culture?
Answer: The central idea contributed to the concept of culture is the idea that masculinity and femininity are enacted in different ways in different times and places. (p. 31)
2. Do West and Zimmerman believe that gender is a quality that belongs to individuals?
Answer: No. They believe that gender is an emergent property of situations and circumstances. (p. 35)
3. What did “Agnes” possess that made her different from other women?
Answer: Agnes possessed a penis. She was born with male anatomy. (p. 36)
4. According to West and Zimmerman, when do people stop “doing gender”?
Answer: West and Zimmerman argue that we are never not “doing gender,” because we are always being assessed or accounted for as members of the gender that we appear to belong to. (p. 39)
5. For the women in Ruby’s study, what does “hijab” mean, beyond simply wearing a head scarf?
Answer: It means modesty, not looking at things which are forbidden, and not drawing too much male attention. (p. 48)
6. How does the hijab link the wearer to the Muslim community, in addition to being a signal of identity?
Answer: The hijab also signifies rites of passage within the community, such as transition to adulthood. (p. 51)
7. How are transgenderists’ coming-out experiences different from those of lesbians and gay men, according to Gagne et al?
Answer: Gays and lesbians have more choice as to how and when to “come out,” while the physical changes in transgenderists’ bodies mean that they have less choice as to when they will be “out.” (p. 57)
8. How did the treatment of transgenderists by their parents and families change as they moved from childhood into adolescence?
Answer: As young children, their gender-crossing behaviour was more tolerated, but they received more negative attention for it as they became older. (pp. 59–61)/p>
9. Were transgenderists’ fears about negative reactions from others realized when they “came out”?
Answer: Not really—although they encountered some stigma, in general people were more accepting than transgenderists expected, especially family members. (pp. 62–63)
10. What was the single greatest difference between women’s and men’s hockey, according to Theberge’s study?
Answer: Women’s hockey did not allow body checking/limited body contact. (p. 69)
Multiple Choice Questions for Part II
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