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Part XI
Social Movements

Content Questions

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1. Why is feminism difficult to define, according to Steenbergen?


2. What changes in the media have been particularly significant for the development of third-wave feminist thought, according to Steenbergen?


3. According to Steenbergen, how have third-wave feminist approaches to sexuality differed from the feminist approaches that came before?


4. In which decade did the Canadian feminist movement have the greatest level of financial support from the federal government?


5. Why were some feminist organizations concerned about dependency on state funding?


6. What does Figure 40.2 suggest about media coverage of women’s groups?


7. Why did many feminist groups turn to offering their services for sale in the 1990s?


8. According to the men’s group activists interviewed by Casey et al., how did poverty and racism affect men’s willingness to participate in anti-sexist activities?


9. What stereotypes about older women do the Raging Grannies counteract, according to Narushima?


10. What did Narushima observe about the reactions of passersby to the Raging Grannies’ street actions?




Multiple Choice Questions for Part XI

Instructions: For each question, click on the radio button beside your answer. When you have completed the entire quiz, click the “Submit my answers” button at the bottom of the page to receive your results.

Question 1:

a) Feminist activism has become increasingly focused on gender relations.
b) The priorities of feminist activism have shifted over the decades.
c) Older generations of feminists are less likely than younger ones to engage with the state.
d) Feminism is no longer central to political life in Canada.
e) Feminism began with a focus on equal rights but is now more concerned with the rights of women.

Question 2:

a) Their impressions of feminism are based on the United States rather than Canada.
b) They are of an older generation.
c) Their depiction of feminism is overly generalized and homogenous.
d) They underestimate the contribution men have made to feminism.
e) They deny the importance of third-wave feminism.

Question 3:

a) A move away from sexual right and freedoms and towards concern with policies and institutions
b) A move towards greater incorporation of people who were not heterosexual
c) A rejection of the gender binaries of earlier feminist generations
d) A movement from the mainstream of Canadian political life to the periphery
e) An embrace of politically conservative ideals

Question 4:

a) A concern with body image and body politics
b) Questions of sexual identity and choice
c) Analysis of media representations
d) A re-thinking of traditional ideas about feminine beauty
e) All of the above

Question 5:

a) The Charter of Rights and Freedoms
b) Our Bodies Ourselves
c) The Report of the Royal Commission on the Status of Women
d) The Gender Equity Amendment to the Constitution
e) None of the above

Question 6:

a) Neoliberal economic policies
b) The second wave of feminist activism
c) Participation in transnational feminist networks such as the World March of Women
d) Greater dependence on international funding
e) Reduced market competition among Canadian feminist organizations

Question 7:

a) Increased amounts of staff time had to go into seeking replacement funding.
b) The capacity of the organizations to meet the needs of their clients declined.
c) Staff members sought employment elsewhere.
d) Organizations became less visible and active in policy and decision-making.
e) All of the above

Question 8:

a) Preparing grant applications to federal funding agencies
b) Freelancing
c) Developing service-oriented business models
d) Returning to second-wave feminist principles based in collective governance and individual freedom
e) None of the above

Question 9:

a) Feminists objected to the involvement of men in anti-violence activity.
b) Many men did not want to question the traditional bases of masculine privilege and authority.
c) Men believed that masculine privilege was not an issue that needed to be addressed.
d) Neither men nor women wished to question the traditional definition of masculinity.
e) Organization leaders were not trained to carry out such evaluations.

Question 10:

a) Pacifism
b) Assertiveness
c) Rage
d) Caring
e) Disempowerment