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Sociology, 4e: Chapter 07

Instructions: For each question, click on the radio button beside your answer. When you have completed the entire quiz, click the Submit my answers button at the bottom of the page to receive your results.

Question 1:


a) Canadians worried about such problems as school violence, ritual abuse, stalkers, home invaders, rap music, and Internet predators quite soon after these issues had begun to attract widespread attention in the United States
b) there are many differences in the linguistic cultures of the two countries
c) there are many differences in the political cultures of the two countries
d) the Canadian mass media exerts a lot of influence on American images of what is worrisome in the contemporary world
e) all of the above

Question 2:


a) crime
b) extreme deviance
c) murder
d) taboo
e) ordinary deviance

Question 3:


a) voyeurism
b) lookouts
c) tearooms
d) deviant behaviours that should be criminalized
e) deviant behaviours that posed no serious risk

Question 4:


a) The lack of fit between the goals people are encouraged to seek and the means available to pursue these goals create a social strain to which deviant behaviour is an adjustment.
b) In the United States, everyone is encouraged to pursue the goal of material success and everyone is judged a success or failure based on the ability to become materially successful.
c) Middle- and upper-class people also experience strain and as a result commit as much or more crime than the lower class.
d) Lower social classes are most likely to experience the disjuncture between the things to which they aspire and the things actually available.
e) When people steal money or material goods, they are attempting to use illegitimate means to achieve success.

Question 5:


a) Older Canadians were more likely than younger Canadians to become victims of violence.
b) Single people were most likely to be victims.
c) Risk was higher for those who self-identified as homosexual.
d) Victimization was lower for people who identified as a visible minority than for non-visible minorities.
e) Victimization was associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption.

Question 6:


a) conformity
b) innovation
c) criminality
d) ritualism
e) retreatism

Question 7:


a) a student who strives for material success by working hard and trying to get a good education
b) a drug dealer who seeks success but rejects the conventional means for achieving that success
c) an employee who is satisfied with working all of his life on minimum wage
d) a drug addict who drops out of the system
e) radical political activists who protest against the government

Question 8:


a) characterized by instrumental delinquency activities, in which those involved seek to generate illegal profits
b) characterized by the presence of ‘fighting gangs’ who battle over turf and neighbourhood boundaries
c) organized around the acquisition and use of hard drugs
d) characterized by youth who began to engage in delinquency as a response to abusive parents
e) characterized by thieves who seek success but reject the conventional means for achieving that success

Question 9:


a) Most people accept as legitimate the culturally approved ways of achieving goals.
b) People commit crime as a way to replace current cultural goals and means with new ones.
c) People commit crime when they lose something they value.
d) People become deviant because they have been exposed to learning experiences that make deviance more likely.
e) Corporate crime is rooted in a capitalist culture that promotes achieving success by any means necessary.

Question 10:


a) Crimes of all types tend to be committed by people who are impulsive, short-sighted, non-verbal risk-takers.
b) The underlying social-psychological characteristic of people who commit crime and deviance is low self-control.
c) Inadequate child-rearing fails to discourage delinquent outcomes.
d) People with low self-control are more likely to commit crime and to engage in a wide range of deviant practices.
e) Social regulation or social control forces people to take others into account and discourages behaviours that are excessively individualistic.

Question 11:


a) Catholics have lower suicide rates than Protestants.
b) Single people have lower suicide rates than married people.
c) Suicide rates increase both in times of economic boom and during depressions.
d) Social regulation or social control forces people to take others into account and discourages behaviours that are excessively individualistic
e) Suicide is more likely when people are disconnected from social regulation and left to their own resources.

Question 12:


a) Ontario
b) British Columbia
c) Quebec
d) Yukon
e) Alberta

Question 13:


a) In stage 1, the offender defines what the victim has said or done as threatening or offensive.
b) In stage 3, the offender makes a countermove, such as a verbal response or a physical gesture intended to respond to the victim.
c) In stage 5, a brief violent exchange occurs.
d) In stage 4, the victim responds in an aggressive manner.
e) In stage 6, the offender flees or remains at the scene.

Question 14:


a) the eruption of violence depends on a variety of conditions that determine how people negotiate emotional tension
b) one of the main pathways around confrontational tension and fear involves identifying and attacking a weak victim
c) one of the main pathways around confrontational tension and fear involves making third parties the focus of emotional attention
d) for violence to be successful, it must turn emotional tension into emotional energy
e) all of the above

Question 15:


a) Males are much more likely to be involved in criminal behaviour.
b) The differential between male and female crimes is greatest for property crimes.
c) Males are more likely to consume both legal and illegal drugs.
d) Males are more likely to commit suicide.
e) Men are more likely to experience problems related to addiction and psychosis.

Question 16:


a) Crime rates are greatest during the late teens and early adulthood and decline very sharply after that.
b) Older husbands are much more likely than younger husbands (those under age 30) to treat their wives violently.
c) Suicide rates tend to be lower among younger Canadians.
d) The onset of most mental illness occurs during adolescence and young adulthood.
e) Age is strongly associated with many kinds of deviant behaviour.

Question 17:


a) Poor people are less likely to commit many kinds of crimes, such as fraud and embezzlement.
b) While minority group status seems to be related to higher rates of crime in some cases—for example, with First Nations people—it seems to be related to lower rates of crime in other groups such as Asian immigrants.
c) Poorer people and people from minority groups commit the majority of crimes.
d) Poorer or minority people may not be more likely to be deviant, but rather just more likely to get caught and be labelled as ‘deviant’.
e) Our definitions of what constitutes crime and deviance may reflect class biases.

Question 18:


a) Only a few years ago being gay might have been considered grounds for social exclusion, but in the contemporary context it is seen as much less deviant.
b) Only a few decades ago, people smoked everywhere, but today smokers are the object of scorn, and their habit is the subject of a variety of forms of legal and extra-legal control.
c) Social tolerance for drinking and driving has decreased.
d) Social tolerance for sexual harassment has remained fairly unchanged.
e) Wife assault is less likely to be tolerated by victims and ignored by police officers.

Question 19:


a) publicizing the problematic character of the people with the behaviour in question
b) convincing us that deviants are dangerous
c) shaping a particular view of the problem
d) convincing us that any one of us is liable to become deviant given certain circumstances
e) building consensus around new moral categories

Question 20:


a) using compelling statistics
b) discovering and attempting to publicize deviant conditions
c) linking an emergent concern to problems already on the public agenda
d) using emotionally-compelling examples to typify the seriousness and character of the threat posed by the behaviour
e) using evidence to impress upon media consumers the size of a problem and its escalating severity

Question 21:


a) moral entrepreneurs
b) control agents
c) primary deviants
d) secondary deviants
e) lawmakers

Question 22:


a) marginalized populations are at greater risk of criminal labels and involvement
b) when deviant behaviours are constructed as medical problems, we turn to doctors and psychiatrists, rather than to the police and the courts
c) various status groups come into conflict over definitions of deviance and forms of social control
d) the struggle to define deviance reflects a cultural difference regarding moral behaviour
e) all of the above

Question 23:


a) The master status or deviant label overrides all other status considerations.
b) The status degradation ceremony refers to the rituals during which the status of ‘deviant’ is conferred, such as courtroom trials.
c) Primary deviance is marked by a life organized around deviance.
d) The ways in which agents of social control respond to initial acts of deviance can actually make future deviance more rather than less likely.
e) One potential consequence of the labelling process is deviance amplification.

Question 24:


a) falsely accused
b) innovator
c) pure deviant
d) conforming
e) secret deviant

Question 25:


a) neutralization
b) disclaiming
c) negotiation
d) performance
e) designation

Question 26:


a) over-conformity with regulation
b) expression of repression of creature releases
c) control of eyes
d) shows of innocence
e) demonstration of conformity with even the most minor examination rules

Question 27:


a) violence against prostitutes results from the legal prohibition of acts of prostitution in Canada, which implies that prostitutes are ‘bad women’
b) the problem of violence against prostitutes is perpetuated by unsafe working conditions and negative cultural attitudes toward sex work
c) part of the solution is to change the law to make safer working conditions for sex workers and to apprehend those who perpetuate violence against them
d) popular film implicitly claims that the problem of violence against prostitutes is an individual problem that requires prostitutes to do something about their situation, rather than shifting the responsibility to social institutions, such as the legal sys
e) all of the above

Question 28:


a) study the way in which language works to marginalize and stigmatize people who come into contact with the criminal justice system or are otherwise labelled deviant
b) state that which is “criminal” or “deviant” can be understood as resulting from the capacity of powerful groups, such as lawmakers, to “discursively” control the behaviour of less powerful groups
c) state that dominant discourses reflect the interests and values of those with the power to have their version of truth “normalized” or accepted
d) state that normative modes of discourse inform popular notions of what is morally superior or “true,” while minority views go unheard
e) all of the above

Question 29:


a) We should never decriminalize prostitution because it will promote more violence against prostitutes.
b) The problem of violence against prostitutes is perpetuated by unsafe working conditions and negative cultural attitudes toward sex work.
c) Part of the solution is to change the law to make safer working conditions for sex workers and to apprehend those who perpetrate violence against them.
d) Popular film implicitly promotes the view that violence against prostitutes is an individual problem that requires prostitutes to do something about their situation.
e) all of the above