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Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.

Print Price: $134.99

384 pp.
18 figures; 29 tables; 22 photos (1-colour), 8" x 10"


Copyright Year:

Imprint: OUP Canada

Educational Foundations in Canada

Alan Edmunds, Jodi Nickel and Ken Badley

Educational Foundations in Canada takes a comprehensive look at the sociological, philosophical, historical, legal, and political factors that impact classroom experiences. Embedded throughout this discussion are practical insights and advice drawn from the authors' own extensive teaching experience. This thought-provoking and thorough introduction is an indispensable resource for teachers both during their pre-service years and throughout their careers.

Readership : Educational Foundations in Canada is aimed at first- and second-year students enrolled in foundations courses in B.Ed programs nationwide.


  • "This text is timely and fills the gap for an appropriate textbook on educational foundations. . . . Students taking a foundations course in which this text is the main resource would be getting a sound and thorough understanding of the foundations of education."
    --Yvette Daniel, University of Windsor

  • "Educational Foundations in Canada is very thorough. It addresses all of the major issues that a teacher candidate or beginning teacher needs to reflect upon. . . . I also like the pan-Canadian focus."
    --Paul Orlowski, University of Saskatchewan

1. Teaching as Reflective Practice
Becoming a Really Good Teacher
The Teacher's Attitude
What Is Reflective Practice?
- The Role of Research in Reflective Practice
- Theory and Practice Connections
Why Engage in Reflective Practice?
Case Study: Teachers' Perspectives on Reflective Practice
- Expert Teachers
How to Engage in Reflective Practice
- Perspective Taking
- My Teaching Log
- Suggestions for Engaging in Reflective Practice
Exemplary Teaching
- Teaching with a Moral Purpose
- The Values of Teaching and Education
- Common Practices among Highly Effective Teachers
2. Classroom Management
Classroom and Behaviour Management
- Problem Behaviour
- Ineffective Approaches to Classroom Management
- Obstacles to Effective Classroom Management
- The Emotional Needs of Students
- Case Study: I Like You, but Not What You're Doing
- Teacher Orientations to Discipline
Classroom Discipline Models
- Behaviour Modification
- Assertive Discipline
- Logical Consequences
- Reality/Choice Therapy
Teacher Behaviours That Diminish Student Behavioural Problems
Positive Behaviour Intervention Support
- The Effectiveness of PBIS
Dynamic Classroom Management: The Application of Positive Support Theory
- Features of Good Classroom Management Plans
- A Model for Classroom Management
- Principles of Evaluation
- DCM Program Fidelity
- Evaluation of DCM
3. Curriculum: Designing Meaningful Learning Experiences
Types of Curriculum
Curriculum Ideologies and Influences
- Religious Orthodox Ideologies
- Case Study: Religious Teaching in Schools
- Rational Humanism
- Social Efficiency Ideology
- Progressivism
- Critical Theory
- Reconceptualism
- Cognitive Pluralism
Curriculum in Canada
Curriculum Planning
- The Role of Objectives and Outcomes in Curriculum Planning
- Backward Design in Curriculum Planning
- Selecting Curriculum Priorities
- Case Study: A Learning Experience Guided by Specific Learning Objectives
Deep Understanding and Transfer
- Intellectual Engagement and Deep Understanding
- Case Study: Intellectual Engagement through an Interdisciplinary Unit
- Problem-, Project-, and Inquiry-Based Learning
- Disciplinary Thinking
Strategy and Skill Instruction
Curriculum Dilemmas
4. Classroom Assessment and Student Evaluation
Curricular Planning
- Instructional Planning
Determining Exactly What to Teach: Learning Objectives and Lesson Plans
- Bloom's Taxonomy
- Stiggins's Achievement Targets
Choosing Effective Instructional Practices
- Case Study: My Preferred Instructional Mechanisms
- How People Learn (HPL) Framework
- Direct Instruction
- Case Study: Using Direct Instruction in the Classroom
- Deciding on an Approach to Assessment
- Case Study: Talking to Students about Assessment
Assessment of Student Learning
- The Purposes of Assessment
- The Assessment Design Process
- Testing Issues
- Types of Assessment Questions
- Case Study: My Use of Assessment Tools
- Checklists, Rating Scales, and Rubrics
- Authentic Activities, Problems, and Questions
- Evaluating Teacher-Based Assessments
- Standardized Achievement Testing
5. The History of Education
Approaches to the History of Education
Ancient Education
- Spartan Education
- Athenian Education
- Roman Education
- Oriental Education
Medieval and Renaissance Education
- Church Control of Education
- High Medieval Education and the Scholastics
- The Medieval Curriculum
- The Eclipse of the Medieval Worldview
Education in the Modern Period
- Richard Mulcaster
- Wolfgang Ratke
- Jean-Jacques Rousseau
- Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi
- Johann Friedrich Herbart
- Friedrich Froebel
- Maria Montessori
- John Dewey
- Developments in German Schooling
- Developments in American Schooling
Canadian Education
- Newfoundland
- Upper Canada
- New France, Lower Canada, and Quebec
- The Manitoba Schools Question
Contemporary Movements in Educational History
- Tightened Educational Funding
- Assessment
- Higher Professional Standards for Teachers
- The Digital Revolution
6. The Philosophical Roots of Education
Branches of Philosophy
- Metaphysics
- Epistemology
- Axiology
Major Philosophical Systems
- Idealism
- Realism
- Existentialism
- Pragmatism
Normative Philosophies of Education
- Case Study: Preservice Teachers' Beliefs and Assumptions about Teaching and Learning
- Perennialism
- Essentialism
- Progressivism
- Social Reconstructionism
- Comparing Philosophies of Education
Framing Your Own Philosophy
- Case Study: A Preservice Teacher's Philosophy Statement
- Case Study: An Experienced Teacher's Philosophy
7. Diversity and the Sociocultural Influences on Teaching
Social Class
- Theoretical Perspectives on Social Class
- Case Study: Reproduction of Social Class
Cultural Diversity
- "Race" and Racism
Canadian Diversity Policies
- Canadian Immigration Trends
- Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
- Multicultural Policies in Canada
Diversity within the Classroom
- Teacher Diversity in Canada
- Student Diversity in Canada
- Cross-Cultural Communication
- Diversity Issues and Teachers' Blind Spots
- Multiculturalism and Antiracist Education
- Case Study: Accessing the Culture of Power
8. The Legal, Economic, and Political Aspects of Education
The Core Cycle of Teaching Activities Governing Canadian Education
- The Constitutional Provisions for Education
- Uniquely Canadian Patterns in Educational Provision
- School Acts and Education Acts
- Provincial and Territorial Departments of Education
- Local School Boards
- School Councils
- Who Inspects the School? Evaluation and Accountability
- First Nations Education
- Case Study: Residential Schools in Cinema
- Who Really Runs Canadian Schools?
Funding Canadian Education
- Funding Public and Separate Schools
- Funding Formulas in Canadian Provinces
- Funding Independent Schools
- Case Study: Funding Independent Schools in British Columbia
Teachers and Their Work
- Teacher Education in Canada
- Teacher Certification and Mobility
- Entering the Profession: New Teacher Induction
- Collective Agreements and Teachers' Rights
- Teacher Contracts and Salaries
- Teacher's Standards and Ethics
- Case Study: Codes of Conduct from British Columbia and Ontario
- How Teachers Are Evaluated
Curriculum and Students
- Determining Curriculum: A Shared Responsibility
- Taking Attendance
- The School Year in Canada
Appendix: Dynamic Classroom Management Case Study

Instructor's Manual:
Lesson plans
Suggestions for in-class activities
Additional instructor resources
Discussion questions
PowerPoint Presentations:
20-25 lecture outline slides per chapter
Image bank
Student Self-Grading Quizzes:
Multiple choice questions
True-or-false questions
Test Bank:
For each chapter:
- Multiple choice questions
- True-or-false questions
- Short answer questions
E-Book (ISBN 9780199005161)

Alan Edmunds is an associate professor in the Faculty of Education at Western University. His teaching emphasis is on helping aspiring teachers understand and construct exemplary teaching methods while his research focus is on the study of highly precocious and gifted children, and developing models for the design and implementation of efficient classroom and behaviour management systems. He is co-author with Gail Edmunds of Educational Psychology and Special Education in Canada, both published by OUP Canada.

Jodi Nickel is an associate professor and chair in Mount Royal University's Department of Education and Schooling. While teaching in the K-12 education system, Jodi completed her Masters of Education researching student-teacher interaction in writing conferences. Her PhD focused on the emerging autonomy of young children. She now teaches prospective teachers her Scholarship of Teaching and Learning research project focused on promoting higher-level thinking in teacher education reflection journals. Her current research considers the emergence of professional identity in teacher education.

Ken Badley is a professor in the Faculty of Education at Oregon's George Fox University. He received his doctorate in philosophy of education from the University of British Columbia, writing his dissertation on the meaning of the phrase, the integration of faith and learning. Prior to coming to George Fox, Badley taught in Alberta, Ontario, and Saskatchewan. He has also published several books related to ethics, worldviews, and world religions.

Questioning the Classroom - Dianne Gereluk, Christopher Martin, Trevor Norris and Bruce Maxwell
Educational Foundations in Canada - Alan Edmunds, Jodi Nickel and Ken Badley
Case Studies in Educational Foundations - Shelley Hasinoff and David Mandzuk
Making Sense in Education - Margot Northey, Kristen Ferguson and Jon G. Bradley

Special Features

  • Examples drawn from across Canada make key lessons highly relevant and relatable to Canadian educators.
  • Broad coverage of key topics - including classroom management, curriculum construction, and education policy - ensures readers develop a well-rounded perspective on the foundations of education.
  • Highlights how socio-cultural issues impact the classroom, presenting issues in educational foundations as they apply directly to teacher-candidates and their experiences.
  • Engaging case studies offer teacher-candidates first-hand insight into issues and situations they will face in the classroom.
  • Stimulating discussion questions encourage students to synthesize what they have learned and identify their own strengths and weaknesses as teachers.
  • Practical Application boxes encourage students to reflect on their own experiences and consider how they might act in real-world classroom situations.