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Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.

Print Price: $105.99

368 pp.
86 photos, 16 figures, 23 tables, 7.5" x 9.25"


Copyright Year:

Imprint: OUP Canada

Cross-Cultural Psychology

Understanding Our Diverse Communities, Canadian Edition

Saba Safdar, Jeffrey Scott Mio, Lori A. Barker, Melanie M. Domenech Rodriguez and John Gonzalez

Cross-Cultural Psychology combines quantitative and qualitative research with anecdotal material to examine multicultural issues and capture the richness of diverse cultures in relation to psychology. This Canadian edition delivers first-person narrative accounts by people in Canada of all ages and cultural backgrounds to illustrate compelling topics such as communication, racial and cultural identity, development, racism, worldviews, and immigration within our national context and beyond.

Watch our author, Saba Safdar, discuss the new Canadian edition of Cross-Cultural Psychology

Readership : This text is suitable for students taking cross-cultural or multicultural psychology from second- to fourth-year levels at colleges and universities.


  • "This text is one of the most engaging, current, and emotionally fluent texts I have had the pleasure to review... It is the best cultural psychology text I have come across so far. I deeply appreciate the emphasis the authors place on student engagement with the material."
    -Christina Basedow, Vancouver Island University

  • "Extremely up-to-date and inclusive. The author has provided much needed research examples for students to look up for further study."
    -Jessica Miller, Rension Univeristy College

  • "It's excellent - a well-rounded perspective with up-to-date and unbiased references."
    -Tanya Broesch, Simon Fraser University

About the Authors
From the Publisher
Chapter 1: What Is Culture and Cross-Cultural Psychology?
Learning Objectives
1.1 What Is Culture?
- Scholarly Definitions of Culture
- Culture and Worldview
1.2 What Is Race?
- The Biological Concept of Race
- The Sociological Concept of Race
- Ethnicity
1.3 What Is Cross-Cultural Psychology?
1.4 What is Cultural Psychology?
1.5 What is Ethnic Psychology?
1.6 What is Multicultural Psychology?
- Multiculturalism as a Philosophy
- The Rise of Multiculturalism
1.7 Multiculturalism as the Fourth Force
1.8 What is the Biopsychosocial Model?
1.9 Historical Background
- Dubious Beginnings
- Gender Differences
- Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and Two-Spirit
Food for Thought
Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 2: Cross-Cultural Involving Research and Testing
Learning Objectives
2.1 Research Methods in Psychology
- The General Research Model
- The White European Standard
- Internal Versus External Validity
2.2 Quantitative Research
- Quantitative Approaches
- Experimental Designs
2.3 Qualitative Research
- Qualitative Approaches and Gender
- Qualitative Approaches and Older Populations
2.4 Biases in Cross-Cultural Research
- Construct Bias
- Method Bias
-- Instrument Bias
- Item Bias
- Bias of the User
- Bias in the Usage
2.5 Equivalence of Measures
- Language Barriers
2.6 Replication in Psychology
2.7 Collaborative Problem Solving
2.8 Intelligence Testing
- Intelligence and Context
- Alternative Conceptions of Intelligence
Food for Thought
Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 3: Diversity and Worldviews
Learning Objectives
3.1 Different Approaches to Investigating Cultures
- Imposed Etics
- Long-Term and Short-Term Orientation
- Understanding Differences from Within
- Male and Female Perspectives
- Idiocentrism and Allocentrism
- Guilt versus Shame
- Face Saving, Face Giving, and Social Support
3.2 Are We WEIRD?
3.3 Models of Value Orientation and Worldview
- Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's Value Orientation Model
- Schwartz's Theory of Human Values
- Derald Wing Sue's Worldview Model
3.4 Worldviews of Different Ethnic Groups
3.5 Social Expectations and World Views of Women
3.6 World View of LGBTQ2S+ Individuals
3.7 Worldview Based on Social Class and Age
- Youth and Worldview
Food for Thought
Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 4: Cultural Differences in Communication
Learning Objectives
4.1 Conversational Rules: The Cooperative Principle
- The Maxim of Quality
- The Maxim of Quantity
- The Maxim of Relevance
- The Maxim of Manner
- Additional Maxims
4.2 Non-Verbal Aspects of Language
- Proxemics
- Kinesics
- Paralanguage
4.3 High- Versus Low-Context Communication
4.4 Direct Versus Indirect Communication
- Ethnic Minority Patterns of Communication
-- Afro-Caribbean & African Canadians
-- Asian Canadians
-- Further Cultural Examples
-- Indigenous Peoples
- Communication Patterns of the Elderly
- Communication Among Younger Adults
4.5 The Role of Social Media in Communication
- The Use of Social Media: The Negative Aspects
- The Use of Social Media: The Positive Aspects
4.6 Gender Differences in Communication
4.7 Bilingual Communication
- Cognitive Consequences of Bilingualism
- Social Consequences of Bilingualism
Food for Thought
Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 5: Immigrants, Refugees, and the Acculturation Process
Learning Objectives
5.1 Immigrants and Refugees
- Immigrants
- Refugees and Asylum Seekers
- The Syrian Refugee Crisis
5.2 Migration Phases
- The Six Stages of the Refugee Journey
5.3 Common Experiences of Immigrants and Refugees
- Language Barriers
- Support Networks
- Family Structure
- New Family Roles
- Employment
- Education
5.4 Acculturation
- Models of Acculturation
-- Acculturation of Immigrants
-- Acculturation of Diverse Populations
5.5 Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model
Food for Thought
Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 6: Stereotyping, Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism
Learning Objectives
6.1 Social Categorizations and Their Consequences
- Stereotype
- Prejudice
- Discrimination
- Racism
- Distinction amongst Stereotypes, Prejudice, Discrimination and Racism
6.2 Stereotype Threat
6.3 The Development of Negative Stereotypes
6.4 Systematic Racism in Society
- Indigenous Experiences with Racism
6.5 Overt Versus Covert Racism
- The Grenfell Tower Tragedy: Was Socioeconomic Status a Factor?
6.6 The Complexities of Modern Racism
- Aversive Racism
- Colour-Blind Racial Ideology
- Internalized Oppression
6.7 Racial Microaggressions
6.8 Racism and the Biopsychosocial Model
6.9 White Privilege
Food for Thought
Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 7: Cultural Identity Development
Learning Objectives
7.1 Independent and Interdependent Self
7.2 Models of Personality
- The Tripartite Model of Personal Identity
- The Five-Factor Model of Personality Across Cultures
7.3 Ethnic Identity Development
- Black Identity Development
- White-European Identity Development
- Chicano/Latino Identity Development
- Asian/Filipino Identity Development
- Indigenous Identity Development
7.4 Multi-Ethnic Identity Development
- Five-Stage Model of Biracial Identity Development
- Bank's Typology of Ethnic Identity
- Model of Bicultural Competence
7.5 Sexual Identity Development
7.6 Racial and Cultural Identity Development Model (R/CID)
7.7 Critiques of Cultural Identity Models
7.8 Complexities of Multiple Identities
Food for Thought
Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 8: Culture and Physical Health
Learning Objectives
8.1 Health and Health Disparities
8.2 Psychological Models of Health
8.3 Health Inequalities and Health Inequities Defined
8.4 A Look at National and Global Health Disparities
- Health Disparities in Canada
- Health Disparities Globally
8.5 Health Outcomes across Ethnic Groups
- Immigrants' Health
- Indigenous Peoples' Health
8.6 Causes of Health Disparities
- Poverty
- Racism
8.7 The Link between Racism, Poverty, and Health
8.8 Access to the Health-Care System
- Barriers to Health-Care Access among Indigenous Peoples
- Barriers to Health-Care Access among Immigrants
- Discriminatory Behaviours in Health-Care Systems
8.9 Access to Health-Care Systems: A Global Review
8.10 Diverse Approaches to Medicine
8.11 Obscure Disparities
8.12 Bringing about Change
Food for Thought
Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 9: Culture and Mental Health: Disorders and Treatments
Learning Objectives
9.1 Culture and Diagnostic Manuals
- International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems
- The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: A Classification System
- Manuals of Mental Disorders: Examples from China, North Africa, and Latin America
9.2 Culture and the Expression of Symptoms
9.3 Cultural Differences in Rates of Mental Disorders
- Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies across Countries and Ethnic Groups
- Ethnic and Racial Groups Not Well Represented in Large Epidemiologic Studies
- Critiquing Epidemiological Studies
- Conclusions from Existing Data
9.4 Utilization of Mental Health Services
9.5 Barriers: Access to Psychological Treatment
- Culture-bound Values As Barriers
- Class-Bound Values As Barriers
- Language Variables as a Barrier
9.6 Culturally Sensitive Therapeutic Approaches
- The Training of Mental Health Professionals: Multicultural Competence
9.7 Gender Differences in Mental Disorders
9.8 Culture-Specific Mental Disorders
- Eating Disorders: A Western Cultural Syndrome?
9.9 The Impact of Pandemic on Mental Health
Food for Thought
Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 10: Where Do We Go from Here? Building Cultural Competence
Learning Objectives
10.1 Cultural Competence
10.2 Awareness of Your Own Cultural Attitudes
- The Four F Reactions: Freeze, Flee, Fight, and Fright
- The Five Ds of Difference
-- Distancing
-- Denial
-- Defensiveness
-- Devaluing
-- Discovery
10.3 Learning About Your Own Culture
10.4 Understanding Other Worldviews
- Learning Key Historical Events
- Becoming Aware of Sociopolitical Issues
- Knowing Basic Values and Beliefs of Other World Views
- Understanding Cultural Practices
- Knowing the Dynamics of Racism, Discrimination, and Stereotyping
10.5 Developing Culturally Appropriate Interpersonal Skills
- Education and Training
- Experience and Practice
- Saying "I Don't Know" and Asking Questions
- Travelling
- Speaking Up for Others: Being an Ally
- Speaking Up for Oneself: Comfort with Difficult Dialogues
- An Attitude of Discovery and Courage
- Developing Empathy
10.6 A Change in Worldview
Food for Thought
Critical Thinking Questions

PowerPoint Slides:
· 25-30 slides per chapter
Test Bank:
· 30+ multiple choice questions per chapter
Instructor's Manual:
· Learning Objectives
· Key Terms
· Class Activities
· Additional Resources
· Essay Questions

Saba Safdar is a professor at the University of Guelph.

Jeffery Scott Mio is a professor at California State Polytechnic University.

Lori A. Barker is a professor at California State Polytechnic University.

Melanie M. Domenech Rodríguez is a professor at Utah State University.

John Gonzalez is a professor at Bemidji State University.

Cultural Methods in Psychology - Kate C. McLean
Handbook of Advances in Culture and Psychology, Volume 8 - Edited by Michele J. Gelfand, Chi-yue Chiu and Ying-yi Hong
Making Sense in Psychology - Margot Northey and Brian Timney

Special Features

  • Experiences, perspectives, and examples from across Canada - including discussion about racism, health care, Indigenous rights, immigration, social media, LGTBQ2S+ worldviews, and bilingualism - ensure the material is relevant to Canadian students while situating it within a global context.
  • Personal stories from Canada and around the world by people of all ages and cultural backgrounds illustrate personal connections to topics such as communication, racial and cultural identity, development, racism, worldviews, and immigration within Canada's national context and beyond.
  • A wealth of pedagogical features - including learning objectives, key terms, Food for Thought boxes, and critical thinking questions - enhance student comprehension and provide easy navigation of concepts.
  • The most cutting-edge data and statistics about communication patterns, international health disparities, the cost of health care, and the prevalence of mental health disorders keep students aware of current trends in cross-cultural psychology around the world.
  • Discussion on the impact of COVID-19 on mental health, behaviour, and cultures around the world contextualizes psychology for students navigating the complexities of the world today.