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Higher Education

Grammar Exercises: Chapter 12

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Exercise 12.1 (Pages 393–394)

a) Consider the rules for joining independent clauses and decide which would be the best in each instance. Write out the complete sentence and include the most suitable joining word if you do not choose to use only a semicolon or colon (do not use and unless it is the only conjunction that makes the sentence make sense).

  1. At safe injection sites, fresh needles are provided to users. The spread of diseases among users has been shown to decrease.
  2. Biofuels seem to be a modern-day technological wonder. They date back to the discovery of firewood as an energy source.
  3. The DNA of plants can be modified to make them resistant to chemicals or insects. The process is called genetic modification, or genetic engineering.
  4. Safety on the Internet has become a major concern for users. Passwords, security codes, and age requirements make surfing the Internet a safer and more enjoyable experience.
  5. The concept of femininity is not always consistent with biological identity. It may be impacted by society, culture, or religion.


b) The following paragraph would benefit from the use of conjunctions, semicolons, and colons to connect independent clauses (sentences). Decide by context the most appropriate joiner, whether a conjunction, a mark of punctuation, or both (such as a coordinating conjunction preceded by a comma or a conjunctive adverb preceded by a semicolon). Use at least four joiners.

Using performance-enhancing drugs can have severe consequences for athletes. Marion Jones was stripped of her medals in 2007. She was sentenced to six months in prison. Successful athletes are powerful role models for children who want to become athletes. Children look to role models as they develop their own sense of right versus wrong. There are no valid options when it comes to performance-enhancing drugs. Getting these drugs out of sport will be worth the effort for the sake of society as a whole.


Exercise 12.2 (Page 399)

a) Add commas where necessary to indicate non-essential (parenthetical) material.

  1. The guest speaker a hospital administrator will speak on challenges for today’s nursing professionals.
  2. The Hubble Telescope which was launched in 1990 has undergone five repair missions the last one in 2009.
  3. When players become involved in a violent video game, it may seem very real to them triggering a variety of negative responses.
  4. The athlete who inspired millions of Canadians in the Marathon of Hope Terry Fox was inspired in turn by Dick Traum the first amputee to complete the New York City Marathon.
  5. Actress Naomi Watts who has raised awareness of AIDS-related issues plays Diana Princess of Wales in a recent movie.


    b) Use commas as necessary to indicate non-essential (parenthetical) material in the paragraph below.

    Research on the “Mozart Effect” the idea that listening to classical music can boost intelligence has produced inconclusive results. What seems certain however is that music does have an effect be it permanent or temporary on the brain. One of the effects has been seen in students who take courses in mathematics. It was revealed that listeners became more interested in mathematics though not better at mathematical calculations. The introduction of certain styles of music such as the Baroque style increased abstract learning which plays a part in mathematical reasoning.


    Exercise 12.4 (Page 404)

    Add commas as necessary in the sentences below. There is more than one punctuation rule to be applied in some sentences.

    1. In the world of sports there have always been athletes who have inspired controversy throughout their careers.
    2. Cheap accessible liquor is the main contributor to the dangerous drinking behaviours of some young adults today.
    3. Asur and Huberman state that “because of its ease of use, speed, and reach, social media is fast changing the public discourse in society.”
    4. Forests help remove and store carbon dioxide from the atmosphere whereas deforestation releases large amounts of carbon.
    5. “Venting to reduce anger is like using gasoline to put out a fire” observed one psychologist (Bushman 729).
    6. Although more and more colleges offer job placement opportunities students often fail to take advantage of them.
    7. The more that people use ebooks the more acceptable they will become but they are unlikely to replace print books in the near future.
    8. According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees a refugee is a person who has been forced to leave his or her country in order to escape war persecution or natural disaster.
    9. For those who are struggling economically attending classes and paying bills may be incompatible aims and online learning can allow them to pursue their education when they have the time to do so.
    10. Many college students tend to experience symptoms of problematic Internet use (PIU) which means they spend excessive time online usually much longer than originally intended.


    b) Use commas as needed in the paragraph below. There is more than one punctuation rule to be applied in some sentences.

    Dystopian novels have long fuelled our imagination the most popular of which is George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four. Published in 1949 the novel was inspired by Orwell's frustration with the political left and its naive acceptance of the totalitarian regimes of Josef Stalin Francisco Franco and Adolf Hitler. Even though Orwell was without doubt a committed socialist he hated authoritarianism and he had a fervent belief in the right to free speech and access to information. As a result of his novel Big Brother the Thought Police the Ministry of Truth and Newspeak will be forever etched into the West's collective consciousness.


    c) Add commas to the following paragraph where needed. Fix any comma splices by using either a semicolon or a colon. Some commas are correct and should not be replaced.

    Enbridge Inc. the developer of the Northern Gateway Pipelines Project is a public firm based in Calgary, Alberta, it specializes in the oil and gas industry. It has over 6,000 employees and wants to build two buried pipelines running from Bruderheim, Alberta to Kitimat, British Columbia. One pipeline will transport 525,000 barrels of oil a day to the port of Kitimat, the other will carry 193,000 barrels of imported condensate a day to Alberta. The project seems like it will spark an economic boom in both British Columbia and Alberta creating hundreds of jobs and tax revenue, in addition it could diversify our trading partners and secure our energy future. However the project is surrounded by controversy, it has divided politicians faced criticism from environmentalists and led to protests from First Nations peoples.


    Exercise 12.5 (Page 408)

    Add apostrophes where needed in the sentences below.

    1. The standard measurement of a nations economy is the market value of all goods and services produced over a period of time.
    2. Gordon Lerners important study analyzed patterns of young peoples cell phone use in three Canadian provinces. (last name is Lerner)
    3. Diagnosis of some kinds of autism is difficult as a patients ability to give feedback may be limited.
    4. For years, many psychologists assumed that lefthanders brains had language capacity concentrated in the brains right side.
    5. The citys image will be damaged if its citizens concerns about waste disposal are not addressed at the councils next session.