Chapter 10 Images

The Great Exposition at the Crystal Palace in 1851 represents an important beginning, when nations, on a consistent basis in the industrial era, began competing with one another on a direct cultural level, measuring products, resources, and skills. Less than 100 years later, international sport competition was commonplace. Canada–United States football match played in London, England, in 1944 (Captain Jack H. Smith). Library and Archives Canada, PA 150135 (p. 240)

Sports on Dominion Day, 1 July 1929, Fort Churchill, Manitoba. In the late nineteenth century, Canadians celebrated national holidays such as the Queen’s birthday with many civic celebrations, which often included sporting events. At first, these sports emphasized the deep cultural connections between Britain and Canada. After the First World War and Canada’s increasing cultural independence from England, these sports assumed more local and national meanings. Library and Archives Canada, e004665811, DAPDCAP588580 (p. 242)

More men in Canada competed in shooting events in the last quarter of the nineteenth century than any other sport. As a result, the new nation became widely equipped with a skilled volunteer military resource. Rifle shooting at the range in Ottawa, c. 1900. Library and Archives Canada/Dominion of Canada Rifle Association fonds/PA-134824 (p. 243)

Eight years after the first rule-based hockey game in Montreal, the McGill University Hockey Club gathers for a photo in 1883. Although sticks remained one-piece for some time, within the next two decades players chose longer sticks and skated with more upright stances. Courtesy of McGill University Archives, PL007612 (p. 248)

A hockey match, possibly the first Stanley Cup game, played in the Victoria Rink, Montreal, 1893. Early ice hockey did not include surrounding boards to contain the puck and teams used only upright poles as goals, similar to early lacrosse goals. Goaltenders had not yet adopted cricket pads to protect their legs. Courtesy of Don Morrow (p. 249)

Clarence Campbell, president of the National Hockey League, 1946–77. During Campbell’s time, the NHL solidified full control over hockey in Canada and the United States. The Stanley Cup symbolized this monopoly and the importance of professional hockey. Canadian fans embraced its significance, according secondary status to the World Championships and Olympic Games. Library and Archives Canada/National Film Board fonds/PA-111399 (p. 250)

The Tigers of Hamilton, 1906. Perhaps a measured response to the criticism against rough play and the dangers of football at the turn of the century, players turned to body padding. Library and Archives Canada/Canadian Intellectual Property Office fonds/PA-029178 (p. 252)

National symbols are an important part of athletic ceremonies at all levels of competition in Canada. Even at very young ages, children experience the same routines as elite athletes—the podium, championship medals, and athletic records. Courtesy of Kevin Wamsley (p. 258)