Quiz for Chapter One
Multiple Choice Questions
1. A critical thinker possesses ________.
- the ability to justify a belief through internal knowledge
- the ability to offer a critique of the possibility of justified knowledge
- the ability to identify value judgments and seek out evidence
- the ability to recognize universal truths independent of untested assumptions
Answer: C (Page 28)
2. Which best describes the traditions in philosophy and science?
- They are rooted in systems of pre-established and unexamined assumptions.
- They were abandoned in the early twentieth century after the collapse of logical positivism.
- They exemplify the idea of a rational community.
- They were abandoned after the rise of the sociological perspective.
Answer: A (Page 30)
3. What does it mean to be open-minded?
- to be receptive to new or different ideas and the ability to change one's position
- to accept all ideas if they are not well supported by scientific evidence
- to acknowledge that familiar views are superior unless proven otherwise
- to dismiss ambiguous and complex ideas if they are not supported by statistical evidence
Answer: A (Page 32)
4. Socrates’ aphorisms ‘know thyself”’ and ‘I know nothing except the fact of my ignorance’ is exemplified by which characteristic of a critical thinker?
Answer: B (Page 32)
5. ________ is to blame for contributing to Aboriginal overrepresentation among criminal offenders?
- Longer sentences for Aboriginals than non-aboriginals
- The negative consequences of Aboriginal and treaty rights
- The social disorganization of neighbourhoods
- Disproportionate minority contact
Answer: C (Page 42)
True or False Questions
1. Among urban Aboriginal residents there is a strong correlation between poor socioeconomic living conditions and overrepresentation in the criminal justice system.
Answer: True (Page 42)
2. Critical thinking is a well-defined set of general principles and remains unchanged regardless of discipline or historical context.
Answer: False (p 29)
3. The prosecution of corporate crimes is declining.
Answer: True (Page 37)
4. The criminal justice system is generally blind to social class differences when assessing criminal offenders.
Answer: False (Page 37)
5. The problem of overrepresentation is even greater among Aboriginal men.
Answer: False (p 39)
Fill in the Blank Questions
1. Social position based on race, class, and ________ influences how the criminal justice system responds to crimes.
Answer: gender (Page 34)
2. According to Ruggiero, self-evaluation helps you resist three major forms of manipulation: the exploitation of ________; the societal pressure to behave in accordance with the latest fashion; and unrelieved self-congratulation.
Answer: gullibility (Page 32)
3. A critical thinker who possesses a ________ disposition is willing to consider both the strengths and the shortcomings of any given way of thinking
Answer: reflexive (Page 33)
4. The term used to refer to the phenomenon of minority ________ in the criminal justice system is disproportionate minority contact.
Answer: overrepresentation (Page 38)
5. The large differences in university participation rate by parental income ________ are of concern to students and their parents, as well as to governments.
Answer: quartile (Page 43)
Short Answer Questions
1. Why is there a university attendance gap between children of lower-quartile parents and children of higher-quartile parents?
Answer: Students in the highest income quartile perform better in reading and have access to books as children. They go to better high schools and score higher on standardized tests, particularly with regard to science and mathematics. In terms of family support, students typically come from two-parent households with at least one parent possessing a graduate or professional degree, and they in turn expect their children to obtain comparable academic success
2. Why is intellectual courage important for critical sociological thinkers?
Answer: Intellectual courage is important because sociologists may need to challenge taken-for-granted opinions in the face of severe opposition, especially if it is the most well-supported or moral position available.
3. What is an example of the unique contributions that the sociological perspective can bring to critical thinking?
Answer: Many sociologists are dedicated to social change for the better, and one contribution they can make to critical thinking is to examine relations of domination and exploitation between social groups.